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When we think about the frontline battles against climate change, operating rooms are seldom on the list. Yet, a lesser-known but significant contributor lurks within the medical practices we rely on for safety and healing: anesthetic gases. Anesthesia, critical for performing pain-free surgeries, has a hidden environmental cost that is drawing increasing concern among environmental scientists and healthcare professionals alike.

Anesthesia is an indispensable part of surgical procedures, rendering patients unconscious and insensitive to pain. It's administered in two main forms: inhalational, which includes gases and volatile liquids, and intravenous. The inhalational anesthetics, such as nitrous oxide, isoflurane, sevoflurane, and desflurane, are particularly potent as greenhouse gases (GHGs).

Unveiling the Environmental Impact

The environmental impact of these gases is alarming. For instance, desflurane, one of the most commonly used anesthetic gases, has a global warming potential (GWP) 2,500 times greater than carbon dioxide over a 100-year period. Nitrous oxide, another commonly used gas, not only has a GWP 298 times that of CO2 but also contributes to the depletion of the ozone layer. These gases escape into the atmosphere primarily through exhalation by patients and are vented out of facilities, mostly unchanged.

A typical mid-size hospital's use of desflurane, for example, contributes as much to climate change as the CO2 emissions from 1,200 cars annually. When we consider that millions of surgeries occur globally each year, the scale of these emissions becomes staggering.

Not only the ‘E’ aspect, the social implications, particularly on healthcare worker safety, are equally critical yet less discussed. In the United States alone, it's estimated that over 250,000 healthcare professionals are at risk of exposure to waste anesthetic gases (WAGs), with N2O being a primary component. These exposures not only threaten worker health but also reflect broader systemic issues within healthcare facilities related to workplace safety standards and environmental health practices.

Current Practices and Their Limitations

Current medical practices often prioritize efficacy and patient safety over environmental concerns, leading to the prevalent use of these high-GWP anesthetic gases. The Royal Brisbane and Women’s Hospital (RBWH) serves as a compelling example of how targeted efforts can significantly reduce the use of these gases. Over a five-year period, the hospital managed to reduce its use of desflurane by over 95%, cutting down its overall anesthetic gas emissions by approximately 88%. These efforts also resulted in a significant cost reduction, underscoring the financial benefits of sustainable practices. While safety should never be compromised, the environmental costs of such practices are now urging a reevaluation.

Exploring Sustainable Alternatives

Fortunately, there are sustainable alternatives and strategies that can minimize the environmental footprint of anesthetic practices:

1. Low-flow Anesthesia Techniques: By minimizing the flow rates of anesthetic gases, we can significantly reduce the quantity required for each surgery, thereby decreasing the emissions.


2. Anesthetic Gas Capture and Destruction: Emerging technologies are focusing on capturing these gases from patients' exhalation and either recycling them or safely destroying them. This technology, while still in developmental stages, promises a reduction in emissions.

3. Opting for Less Polluting Agents: Anesthesiologists can choose anesthetics with a lower GWP, such as isoflurane over desflurane, where clinically appropriate. Additionally, using intravenous anesthetics like propofol, which have no known environmental impact, can be an alternative in suitable cases.

4. Regulatory Actions and Guidelines: Healthcare systems and governments can develop and implement guidelines that promote the use of environmentally friendly anesthetic practices. Some countries have begun to recognize and address this issue through national health system policies.

The Role of Investment in Sustainable Healthcare

The transition to greener anesthetic practices also presents a unique opportunity for investors. By funding companies that are pioneering low-impact anesthetics or developing capture and recycling technologies, investors not only foster innovation in healthcare but also contribute to the broader goals of environmental sustainability. The growth potential for green technology in healthcare is substantial, as more facilities seek to reduce their carbon footprints.

In conclusion, while anesthetic gases play a crucial role in modern medicine, their environmental impact cannot be overlooked. By adopting new technologies, practices, and policies, we can mitigate their effects and help lead the way towards a more sustainable future in healthcare. Let us champion the cause where every breath taken in healing does not have to cost us the earth.


Sherman, J., Le, C., Lamers, V., & Eckelman, M. (2012). Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of anesthetic drugs. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 114(5), 1086-1090.


Gadani, H., & Vyas, A. (2011). Anesthetic gases and global warming: Potentials, prevention and future of anesthesia. Anesthesia Essays and Researches, 5(1), 5-10.


Alexander, R., Poznikoff, A., & Malherbe, S. (2018). Greenhouse gases: the choice of volatile anesthetic does matter. Canadian Journal of Anesthesia/Journal canadien d'anesthésie, 65, 221-222.

Author: Ms. Christine Huang, ESG Research Assistant of ICSD

On 31 May 2024, ICSD was interviewed at HOY TV’s 「聲東擊西」and talked about the CEPAR® Model

In recent years, fast fashion conglomerates have been producing garments at record-breaking speeds, with major retailers such as Zara, H&M and Primark creating hundreds of collections per season to drive sales and capitalise from the insatiable demand for trendy and affordable clothing. While fashion lovers can now purchase clothing at a lower price point, questions of overconsumption loom over the unsustainable production practices of the industry and there are calls for a transparent sustainability reporting system for all phases of production which consumers then take into account when they choose what brands to purchase from.

The mountain of disposed garments in the Atacama Desert in Chile

Credit: National Geographic is a website that rates clothing brands on their sustainability performance and environmental impact, the website aims to educate the public on their purchases and allow those who are environmentally conscious to shop according to their preferences. The three main parameters on which Goodonyou measures sustainability are people, planet and animals, producing scores on a scale of 5, as well as an overall rating. As the brands are graded on their scale of environmental impact, the website covers brands of various price points and genres. A high-end brand that had recently been found to have exploited Peruvian wool manufacturers for the past decade, scored 2 out of 5 and gained a “Not good enough” rating, while Story mfg., an ethical and vegan brand, scored a 4 out of 5.

Overall, mass-production brands produce lower scores while small-scale artisanal companies perform better, as they can afford to implement more stringent measures to be sustainable, such as maintaining ethical procedures, paying living wages, reducing animal-derived components and using sustainable materials in their products.

Handbag made from Amazonian Fish Skin, a sustainable leather alternative.

Credit: Osklen

There are many ways to dress stylishly, another approach to shop sustainably includes shopping vintage or reworked pieces, which along with the Y2K fashion trends, saw a revival among Generation Z. As shoppers grow to be more environmentally conscious, clothing brands may move towards fulfilling their sustainability goals in their hopes of retaining their customers and growing their market. 

Author: Arthur Ip, ICSD UK Chapter Youth Ambassador

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